Bookbinding through the Ages

Thursday, May 10, 2012

The art of bookbinding began in Egypt with the earliest known bound books dating from the fourth century (Greenfield 81). Early books consisted of papyrus or vellum pages bound with wood boards covered in animal skins. Currents books are primarily made from paper textblocks bound into pulpboard, or binders board, covered with book cloth or buckram. Although the techniques and materials have changed considerably over the past two millennia, the practice of binding loose pages between protective covers into a bound book continues to flourish.

Summary of Literature

Although research on the subject began as late as the middle of the twentieth century, bookbinding and the history of bookbinding are topics about which numerous books have been written. The majority of sources concentrate on the exterior decoration of the bindings rather than the internal structure, but a recent handful of books discuss the history of bookbinding by describing various bookbinding structures. Twelve Centuries of Bookbinding: 400-1600 by Paul Needham is an excellent source written in 1979 that describes with illustrations different types of bookbinding beginning with Coptic bookbinding from the fifth century through bookbindings from different parts of the world in the late sixteenth century. Needham discusses the structure and history of approximately one hundred historical books. Victorian Publishers' Book-bindings in Paper by Ruari McLean, which was first published in 1983, is a book that presents Victorian bookbindings during the nineteenth century through text and illustrations. McLean focuses on the Victorian techniques that primarily used paper bindings as opposed to leather and cloth. Written by Jane Greenfield in 1998, ABC of Bookbinding: A Unique Glossary with over 700 Illustrations for Collectors & Librarians includes both a glossary of bookbinding terms and a timeline of historical bookbindings. The bookbinding timeline includes the structure and materials used for each binding technique beginning with Coptic binding in the forth century through stationary binding in the twentieth century.

Written by Kojiro Ikegami and translated into English by Barbara B. Stephen, the 1986 Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman covers almost every major Japanese bookbinding technique from the past 1500 years. Japanese Bookbinding is the most extensive book about Japanese bookbinding written to date. A History of English Craft Bookbinding Technique by Bernard C. Middleton from 1963 discusses various bookbinding techniques with a focus on English bookbinding. Middleton also includes information about historical structures such as Coptic sewing and papyrus pages. Written by Howard M. Nixon in 1978, Five Centuries of English Bookbinding also focuses English bookbinding techniques beginning in the late fifteenth century. Nixon includes textual information and illustrations to describe binding types and specific books. Written in 1986, Bookbinding in Early America: Seven Essays on Masters and Methods by Hannah D. French discusses bookbinding techniques unique to master binders in the United States of America beginning with Scottish-American bookbinding during the Colonial Period through Frederick August Mayo, who bound books for Thomas Jefferson.

Book Structure

Figure 1

Bookbinding, regardless of the specific binding structure, requires certain basic pieces to construct the internal textblock and the external cover. The basic parts of any bound book are the textblock, the sewing, the front and back covers, and the spine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The main purpose of bookbinding is to protect the textblock, or pages, which contains the primary textual content of the book (Richmond 44). Early textblocks were printed on vellum or papyrus, and modern textblocks are printed on paper. The sewing of a book is used to attach individual pages together to form the textblock as well as to sometimes attach the textblock to the covers. Different types of thread including linen, cotton, synthetic, and silk are used for sewing depending on the type of binding (Greenfield 69). The spine of a book covers and protects the sewing on the textblock. Spines are lined with paper or cloth and are covered with leather, tawed skin, and cloth depending on the binding structure (Greenfield 65). The front and back covers of a book are constructed of boards and a covering. Early boards were typically made from papyrus cartonnage and wood; modern boards are now constructed from various types of composite paper pulp, more frequently known as binders board (Greenfield 10).

Coptic Binding

Figure 2

Coptic binding, named after the Copts who were the native Christian people in Egypt, is the earliest known binding, which dates to as early as the fourth century and continued to be used through the eleventh century (Greenfield 81; Middleton 9). The earliest examples of Coptic bindings have been found in Egypt in various disparate locations including ancient monasteries and in the desert (Greenfield 81). The best known and most well-preserved example of a Coptic binding is found on a book dating from the fifth century entitled Acts of the Apostles, which is written in the Middle-Egyptian dialect and presumably the first book in a two-volume set (Needham 7-9). Coptic bookbindings begin with textblocks made from papyrus or vellum sewn together with thread or thin cords (Greenfield 81; Middleton 9). As illustrated in Figure 2, the sewing pattern used in Coptic bindings is the chain stitch, which is still partially used in modern sewing patterns (Greenfield 81). Coptic sewing did not use any sort of sewing support such as cords or tape (Alstrom 3). In some surviving examples of Coptic bindings, the sewing was also used to attach the textblock to the front and back boards as well as to sew the sections of the textblock together (Middleton 9).

An excellent example of Coptic sewing is found in the Stonyhurst Gospel, which is a British work dating from the late seventh century (Middleton 10). Sometimes, although not usually, decorative endsheets were attached to the textblock before leather, vellum, or cloth spine linings were adhered to the spine of the textblock (Greenfield 81). The boards used in the covers of Coptic bindings were made from papyrus cartonnage or wood (Greenfield 81). Often the wood was left plain and uncovered, but sometimes the boards were covered with brown or reddish goatskin (Needham 7; Greenfield 81). The boards of Coptic bindings are then typically attached to the textblock either with the same sewing as used to attach the sections of the textblock together (Greenfield 81). Sometimes, however, the covers are attached with leather thongs or with Z lacing (Greenfield 81). The covers of Coptic bindings also normally have leather fastenings attached with pins or thongs that keep the covers closed and further protect the pages in the textblock (Greenfield 81).

Medieval Binding

Figure 3

Figure 4

Medieval binding is a European bookbinding used popularly in Europe beginning during seventh century through the fourteenth century (Greenfield 93). Medieval bindings begin with textblocks made from vellum, or parchment, which is primarily made from the skins of calves, lambs, and kids and less frequently from the skins of adult cattle, sheep, and goats (Greenfield 93; Middleton 2). The edges of the textblock are usually left plain and undecorated (Greenfield 93). The typical sewing patterns found in medieval bookbindings are linked sewing and packed sewing (Greenfield 93). Linked sewing forms a chevron pattern by the thread picking up the previous stitch, as illustrated in Figure 3 (Greenfield 42). Packed sewing is a sewing pattern in which the thread winds around the current sewing station before entering the subsequent sewing station, as illustrated in Figure 4 (Greenfield 48). Raised-thong sewing also appeared as a sewing technique near the end of the medieval binding period during the twelfth-century (Middleton 15). The spines of medieval bindings are then lined with vellum or leather with the spine lining extending inside the boards, similarly to modern binding techniques (Greenfield 93).

Covered with tawed skin or leather, the boards used in medieval bindings are primarily made of wood and attached to the textblock with extending tabs at the head and tail (Greenfield 93). Unlike most modern binding structures, the boards used in medieval bindings were aligned flush with the textblock (Greenfield 93). The covers of medieval bindings also typically have fastenings made from leather straps that were attached to the cover with pins and bosses (Greenfield 93). Although most books bound during this time period were plain and unadorned, a bookbinding technique commonly known as "medieval treasure binding" also appeared between the seventh and fourteenth centuries (Needham 21). Medieval treasure bindings were constructed with more expensive and elaborate materials such as ivory and precious metals with the covers sometimes adorned with jewels (Needham 21). An important example of a book bound with a medieval treasure binding is a book of Gospels written in Latin at the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland that dates from the late ninth century (Needham 24). Books bound with medieval bindings were often large and heavy.

Four-Hole Oriental Binding

Figure 5

Of the various Oriental bookbinding techniques, four-hole Oriental binding was the most commonly used binding structure throughout Asia beginning as early as the fourteenth century and continuing through the nineteenth century (Greenfield 91). Four-hole Oriental binding originated in China but was also widely popular in other Asian countries like Japan (Greenfield 91). The textblock of a four-hole Oriental binding is constructed from thin flexible paper (Greenfield 91). The textblock is then sewn together with an inner binding so that the textblock remains intact even if the covers are removed (Ikegami 30). Unlike Western bindings that historically have boards made of wood, four-hole Oriental bindings as well as other Asian bookbinding techniques use covers constructed from reinforced paper (Greenfield 91). The paper covers also have decorative cloth corner pieces that fold around the textblock at the head and tail (Greenfield 91; Ikegami 30). In additional to the inner binding that holds the textblock together, four-hole Oriental bindings also have an outer sewing pattern that attaches the covers to the textblock. Four holes that pierce the covers, decorative cloth corner pieces, and textblock are created along the spine of the book, and then the thread is side sewn through the entire book, as illustrated in Figure 5 (Ikegami 30; Greenfield 91). Books bound with Oriental bindings traditionally open on the left side because Asian writing is written and read from right to left.

Figure 6

Sixteenth-Century Binding

After the large and heavy books of the medieval binding period, printers started creating smaller and lighter books beginning around 1500 that were easier and faster to bind (Greenfield 99). Many of the books printed during this period were religious texts (Alstrom 6). The textblocks of sixteenth-century bindings are primarily made out of linen or cotton paper with sheets of vellum or paper strengtheners sewn onto the first and last signatures (Greenfield 99). Although such endsheets were previously sparingly used, books bound with sixteenth-century bindings were the first to commonly attach decorative endsheets to the front and back of the textblock (Greenfield 99). Colored edges appeared on textblocks during the sixteenth century, but plain edges were still frequently used during this period (Greenfield 99). The sewing techniques primarily used for sixteenth-century binding was still raised sewing on two to five sewing supports including both thongs and cords that were inset into the boards, as illustrated in Figure 6 (Greenfield 99). Cords made from hemp and linen, however, largely replaced leather and tawed skin thongs during the later half of the sixteenth-century, which resulted in more durable books (Greenfield 99; Middleton 16). The spines of sixteenth-century bindings are then lined with paper or vellum (Greenfield 99). The boards are primarily constructed from paper leaves pasted together, pasteboard, or from pressed paper pulp, pulpboard, but were still often made of wood (Greenfield 99). Whereas the boards used in southern Europe during this time period are primarily made from beech wood, the boards used in northern are constructed from oak or thicker beech wood (Alstrom 7, 8). Similar to modern bindings, sixteenth-century bindings used boards that extended beyond the textblock to create the square of the cover (Greenfield 99). The boards were then covered with sheep, calf, or goat skin that ranged in color from dark brown to tan to near black (Greenfield 99). Sixteenth-century bindings finally used ribbon ties or simply excluded any type of fastenings (Greenfield 99). An example of a book bound with a sixteenth-century binding is the Norman Panel-Stamped Binding dating from 1519 that has a brown calf skin cover over pasteboard, which is considered one of the finest examples of French bookbinding from the sixteenth-century (Needham 130).

Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Bindings

Figure 7

Seventeenth-century binding and eighteenth-century binding are extremely similar to sixteenth-century binding (Greenfield 103, 107). The textblocks continued to be constructed with paper made from linen and cotton (Middleton 4). The first paper-making machine, which greatly increased both the speed at which paper was manufactured and the supply of paper available, was invented at the end of the eighteenth century (Richmond 37). Beginning in the seventeenth-century, more endsheets than not were decorated (Greenfield 103). The boards used in seventeenth-century and eighteenth-century bindings were no longer made with wood but were predominantly constructed from pasteboard or pulpboard (Greenfield 103, 107). The main difference between sixteenth-century, seventeenth-century, and eighteenth-century binding structures is found in the sewing supports. Whereas sixteenth-century sewing used raised sewing on hemp and linen cords, seventeenth-century binding developed the innovation of recessed thongs and cords, as illustrated in Figure 7 (Greenfield 99, 103; Middleton 17). In recessed sewing, the supports rest in grooves cut into the spine of the textblock so that the thread passes over the thongs or cords instead of under and around (Greenfield 56). Recessed sewing, which was considerably cheaper and faster to make, produced books with flat, smooth spines that opened more easily and more flatly (Middleton 17, 19).

Case Binding

Figure 8

Nineteenth-century binding is the first bookbinding structure to use the technique of case binding in which the textblock and cover are prepared separately (Greenfield 109). The textblocks of nineteenth-century bindings were made of inexpensive and therefore poor-quality paper whose acidity led to the brittle book crisis of the 1980s (Greenfield 109). Although no longer on raised cords, the sewing structure of nineteenth-century bindings still used supports in the form of linen tapes (Greenfield 109). Many books bound during the nineteenth century were also machine sewn, the technology of machine sewing having been fully developed by 1882 (Greenfield 109). The edges of the textblocks of nineteenth-century bindings, particularly on smaller gift books, were often brightly colored with colors including blue, green, yellow, purple, brown, red, and black (Greenfield 109; Middleton 88-89). However, the purple edges often quickly faded to brown because of the ingredients in the dye (Middleton 89). Like modern bindings, the spines of nineteenth-century bindings were rounded and lined first with cloth extending past the spine onto the boards and then with paper (Greenfield 109). The boards were constructed from paperboard or pulpboard with abundantly decorated covers (Greenfield 109). Although cloth was widely used for nineteenth-century covers, paper became an increasingly popular material during the Victorian era of the last three-fourths of the century (Greenfield 109; McLean 9). Elaborate cover designs to decorate the paper covers also emerged during the Victorian period (McLean 13). Owen Jones, who designed the cover for the 1846 Moore's Irish Melodies as illustrated in Figure 8, was the most notable cover designer of the nineteenth century (McLean 13).

Case binding is a modern bookbinding technique dating from the 1820s that continues to be popularly used in the twenty-first century (Young 5). Case binding is a hollow back binding, which means the cover materials are independent from the spine materials (Young 5). Hollow back binding allows a book to open flat without damage to the textblock because the back arches out and away from the spine permitting the signatures and sewing of the textblock to move more freely (Greenfield 14; Young 5). Case binding also produces more books in a shorter period of time because the technique generally requires less labor and fewer resources (Middleton 74). In the 1890s, the Sheridan case-maker mechanized the production of case bindings, which further increased the speed at which books could be bound (Middleton 76). The development of the case binding was an extremely important innovation for bookbinding because the demand for books greatly outnumbered the production by binderies at the end of the nineteenth century (Middleton 75).

Figure 9

Books bound with case bindings are created by first independently constructing the textblock and cover and then attaching, or "casing in," the cover to the textblock, as illustrated in Figure 9. The textblock of case bindings is first sewn together, sometimes with linen tapes. After discovering the embrittlement and deterioration of the poor-quality paper used in almost all books bound in the nineteenth century through the end of the twentieth century, modern publishers began printing books on acid-free paper. Endsheets are either sewn onto the textblock with the same thread as the textblock or are attached with Japanese tissue and some sort of adhesive such as paste or PVA glue. The spine is then lined with a cloth "super" followed by a paper lining. After the textblock is prepared, the case, or cover, is constructed. The case consists of two pieces of pulpboard, or more frequently known as binders board, cut slightly larger than the textblock to create a square and a stiffened spine lining usually made from paper or cloth (Greenfield 109). The boards and spine lining are then attached to a piece of cloth or buckram with PVA glue. Finally, the textblock is cased in to the cover by gluing the extending spine lining, sewing tapes, and endsheets to the case with PVA glue (Greenfield 109). Case binding is a protective bookbinding technique that also provides functionality in opening the book. Most modern hardback books are bound with case bindings.


Bookbinding as a craft began during the fourth century with Coptic binding in Egypt (Greenfield 81). Whereas early books were constructed from papyrus or vellum textblocks with wood boards and animal skin covers, modern books are made with paper textblocks with pulpboard boards and cloth or buckram covers. Even though the materials and techniques used for binding pages between protective covers have evolved since the early part of the first millennium, the art of bookbinding continues to thrive in the twenty-first century.


Harry Potter: A Modern Pilgrim

Monday, April 30, 2012

Many literary critics view The Pilgrim's Progress as the model for modern allegories. Like The Pilgrim's Progress, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is also a Christian allegory. Although many Christian groups argue against the claim, the Harry Potter books are very Christian in themes and symbolism. In fact, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is a modern adaptation of The Pilgrim's Progress. Not only are the larger journeys in The Pilgrim's Progress and Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone similar, but each task Harry encounters also corresponds with a task Christian or Christiana face.

The Pilgrim's Progress and Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone are two stories about journeys. Each journey is both literal and metaphorical. In his physical journey, Christian leaves the City of Destruction, goes over a river, travels through treacherous land, crosses a second river, and reaches the Celestial City. Likewise, Harry enters a trapdoor in Hogwarts, completes several tasks, confronts the bad guy, is rescued by Dumbledore, and ends up in the hospital wing of the castle.

However, both journeys are also allegorical in accordance with Christian doctrine. Before Christian the man can begin his journal to the Celestial City in The Pilgrim's Progress, he must die. Crossing the river is a metaphor for death. His journey through places like the Valley of the Shadow of Death and Doubting Castle is a task he must successfully complete before he is judged worthy of entering the Celestial City, which is another name for Heaven. According the Christian beliefs, entering Heaven after death is a resurrection to eternal life. Therefore, crossing the second river is a symbol for this rebirth into Heaven. Once in the Celestial City, Christian finds the true king, which is a symbol for God and Jesus.

Like Christian, Harry also experiences a figurative death, journey, and rebirth in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. In order to save the Sorcerer's Stone from dark wizards, Harry first enters a trapdoor. This trapdoor leads him from the safety of Hogwarts into a series of dangerous tasks. Like Christian's death at the river, Harry experiences a figurative death when he drops under the trapdoor. Once inside, Harry must also successfully complete a journey through tasks like finding the correct flying key and choosing the correct potion before discovering the Stone in the Mirror of Erised. After Harry finds the Sorcerer's Stone, Dumbledore rescues him and takes Harry to the hospital wing. Like when Christian enters Heaven, Harry experiences a metaphorical rebirth or resurrection from below to above the trapdoor. Therefore, exiting the trapdoor is a symbol for the Christian rebirth into Heaven after death. Ultimately, Harry finds and saves the Sorcerer's Stone, which is a medieval symbol for Jesus.

Harry must first slip past Fluffy, the giant three-headed dog that guards the trapdoor, in order to rescue the Sorcerer's Stone. Harry, Ron, and Hermione sneak into the third floor corridor, and "[a]s the door creaked, low, rumbling growls met their ears. All three of the dog's noses sniffed madly in their direction, even though it couldn't see them." (Stone 275) Like Harry and his two companions, Christiana and her children encounter a dog on their way through the wicket-gate. Christiana knocks on the door, "[b]ut instead of any that answered, they all thought that they heard, as if a Dog cam barking upon them. A Dog, and a great one too, and this made the Women and Children afraid." (Bunyan 178) Both dogs are huge and terrifying and stand in the path of each group's journey.

Beneath Fluffy lies a trapdoor. As abovementioned, this trapdoor represents Harry's figurative death. The trapdoor also correlates with the wicket-gate to which Christian is sent by Evangelist at the beginning of his journey. Evangelist tells Christian, "Keep that light in your eye, and go up directly thereto, so shalt thou see the Gate..." (Bunyan 11,13) Christian must enter through the gate to continue his journey to the Celestial City. Similarly, Harry must drop through the trapdoor. "Harry climbed over [Fluffy] and looked down through the trapdoor...He lowered himself through the hole until he was hanging on by his fingertips...And Harry let go...With a funny, muffled sort of thump he landed on something soft." (Stone 276-277) Ron and Hermione follow him. Therefore, in order to continue their journeys, Christian and Harry must pass through the wicket-gate and the trapdoor.

After Harry and his friends enter the trapdoor, they land on "something soft" that Harry believes is "some sort of plant" (Stone 277). Realizing the plant is Devil's Snare, Hermione struggles to free herself from the tendrils that are wrapping themselves around her ankles. Like its name implies, Devil's Snare traps its victims in a devilish fashion. "As for Harry and Ron, their legs had already been bound tightly in long creepers without their noticing." (Stone 277) Christian also becomes trapped by nature during his journey when he stumbles into the Slow of Dispond. A slow of dispond, or slough of despond, literally means a soft, muddy ground of depression or loss of hope. "Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slow of Dispond alone; but still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the Slow, that was still further from his own House, and next to the Wicket-gate..." (Bunyan 16) Both the Devil's Snare and the Slow of Dispond are next to the trapdoor and wicket-gate and ensnare unwary pilgrims like Harry and Christian.

However, neither Harry and Ron nor Christian is defeated by their captors. Hermione frees herself from the Devil's Snare and watches as Harry and Ron continue struggling with the plant. "...[T]he more they strained against it, the tighter and faster the plant wound around them." (Stone 277) Hermione finally recalls that Devil's Snare hates warmth and light so "...she whipped out her wand, waved it, muttered something, and sent a jet of...bluebell the plant. In a matter of seconds, the two boys felt it loosening its grip as it cringed away from the light and warmth." (Stone 278) With Hermione's help, Harry and Ron escape the Devil's Snare. Likewise, Help assists Christian when Christian stumbles into the Slow of Dispond. Help tells Christian, "Give me thy hand; so [Christian] gave [Help] his hand, and [Help] drew [Christian] out, and set him upon sound ground, and bid him go on his way." (Bunyan 16) Both Harry and Christian receive help when they find themselves trapped.

After escaping the Devil's Snare, Harry and his friends enter a room full of "winged keys", one of which unlocks the door to the next task (Stone 279). The trio mount three brooms and, "[a]fter a minute's weaving about through the whirl of rainbow feathers, [Harry] noticed a large silver key that had a bent wing, as if it had already been caught and stuffed roughly into the keyhole." (Stone 280) Harry catches the flying key. "He rammed it into the lock and turned — it worked." (Stone 281) In order for Christian and Hopeful to escape from Doubting-Castle, the two pilgrims must unlock the dungeon door in which they are captive. After a few days of torture, Christian remembers, "I have a Key in my bosom, called Promise, that will, (I am perswaded) open any Lock in Doubting-Castle." (Bunyan 114) He "began to try at the Dungeon door, whose bolt (as he turned the Key) gave back, and the door flew open with ease, and Christian and Hopeful both came out." (Bunyan 114) Both Harry and Christian use specific keys to leave one phase of their journeys and enter the next.

In the chamber next to the flying keys is a giant chessboard. Harry, Ron, and Hermione must play as chess pieces and win the game in order to continue their journey. Ron takes charge; but as the game nears an end, Harry realizes that Ron is going to allow himself to be taken. When Harry and Hermione try to stop him, Ron shouts, "That's chess!...You've got to make some sacrifices! I take one step forward and she'll take me — that leaves you free to checkmate the king, Harry!" (Stone 283) Ron then moves, and the queen takes him. "He stepped forward, and the white queen pounced. She struck Ron hard across the head with her stone arm, and he crashed to the floor...He looked as if he'd been knocked out." (Stone 283)

The chessboard in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone represents Vanity-Fair in The Pilgrim's Progress. Not only do the squares on the board resemble the booths in the city, but Evangelist warms Christian of the danger he will find in Vanity-Fair and the necessity of continued faith. Evangelist says to Christian and Faithful the man, " will soon come into a town that you will by and by see before you: and in that Town you will be hardly beset with enemies, who will strain hard to kill you...but be you faithful unto death, and the King will give you a Crown of life." (Bunyan 85) Once in Vanity-Fair, Faithful refuses to renounce his faith so "...first they Scourged [Faithful], then they Buffetted him, then they Lanced his flesh with Knives; after that they Stoned him with Stones, the prickt him with their Swords, and last of all they burned him at Ashes at the Stake." (Bunyan 95) Like Ron giving up himself for Harry and Hermione, Faithful realizes he must sacrifice his physical body for his faith in God.

Beyond the chessboard is a room in which Harry and Hermione are hit with an awful stench (Stone 284). "Eyes watering, they saw, flat on the floor in front of them, a troll even larger than the one they had tackled, out cold with a bloody lump on its head." (Stone 284) Potentially deadly to Harry and Hermione, the troll is already incapacitated when they reach its chamber. Although Christian is not fortunate enough to encounter an unconscious troll, he also escapes a large creature. A while after leaving Vanity-Fair, Christian and his new companion are captured by Giant Despair and held captive in Doubting-Castle. After Christian uses his key called promise, he and Hopeful run from the dungeon to the main gate. "...[B]ut that Gate, as it opened, made such a creaking, that it waked Giant Despair, who hastily rising to pursue his Prisoners, felt his Limbs to fail, for his fits took him again, so that he could by no means go after them." (Bunyan 114) Like Harry and Hermione who get away from the troll because it was already knocked out, Christian escapes from Giant Despair when the giant lost the use of his body.

After Harry and Hermione pass from the troll's room, fires burst in both the door into and out of this next room. They find themselves trapped in a chamber that contains seven bottles and a piece of paper (Stone 284-285). Hermione reads the paper and exclaims, "Brilliant...This isn't magic — it's logic — a puzzle." She quickly figures out which potion returns them to the troll's room and which potion leads them to the next task. Hermione goes back to help Ron, and Harry continues on his journey. Similarly, Christian is presented with riddles when he visits the Interpreter's house. As the Interpreter says, "[C]ome in, I will shew thee that which will be profitable to thee..." (Bunyan 29) He shows Christian scenes such as the dust sweeper and the water sprinkler, Passion and Patience, and the Devil's fire (Bunyan 30-32). Both Harry and Christian are presented with puzzles that Hermione and the Interpreter explain.

Finally, Harry reaches a chamber that contains the Mirror of Erised the ultimate task of his journey. Quirrell, who wants to steal the Stone for evil purposes, is unable to unlock the secret of the Mirror so he tries to use Harry to find the Stone. As Harry stands in front of the Mirror, he sees only his reflection at first. "But a moment later, the reflection smiled at him. It put its hand into its pocket and pulled out a blood-red stone. It winked and put the Stone back in its pocket..." (Stone 292) When his reflection replaces the Stone, Harry feels it actually drop into his own pocket (Stone 292). As Dumbledore later explains to Harry, "You see, only one who wanted to find the Stone — find it, but not use it — would be able to get it..." (Stone 300) Similarly, when Christian, Hopeful, and Ignorance reach the Celestial City, they find a sign above the gate that proclaims "in Letters of Gold, Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the Tree of Life; and may enter in through the Gates into the City." (Bunyan 152) All three pilgrims look at the sign, but only Christian and Hopeful can read it. Ignorance, who is illiterate, is denied entrance to the city. Like the judgement of pilgrims who want to enter the Celestial City, only certain worthy witches and wizards are able to find the Sorcerer's Stone.

Ultimately, although Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is frequently criticized as non-Christian, Christian themes and symbolism permeate the story. Like The Pilgrim's Progress, the book is a Christian allegory, especially during Harry's journey beneath the trapdoor. With so many similarities, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone is undoubtedly a modern version of The Pilgrim's Progress.


Written records of the Germans

Saturday, February 4, 2012

This article was prompted by my investigation on Beowulf.

The Germanic tribes used runes, Gothic alphabet, and Latin alphabet. Runes were the most ancient characters used by Germanic tribes. They date from the 2nd century A.D. At first runes were the marks of mysterious or magic significance (importance). The word RUNE meant MYSTERY. Later it began to be used in the meaning of LETTER. There were several types of runic alphabets. In the most widely spread one there were 24 runes. Runes were used by all Germanic tribes, especially Scandinavians, who made their inscriptions on the rock, wood and bone.

The first Germanic alphabet is said to have been created by Ulfilas. It was based on the Greek characters with some Latin letters and some runes in addition.

The Latin characters were brought to the Germans by Roman monks who began to Christianize the Germanic tribes in the 6th century. They set up schools and taught the Germans Latin. For this purpose they made translation of Roman Church texts into the language of Germanic tribes writing the Germanic words in Latin characters. But some additions had to be done to the Latin alphabet, because it was impossible to express all the sounds of the Germanic languages by Latin letters.

How to Get Published Online Easily?

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Being an amateur writer I want to provide my articles and written material with more exposure. Publishing them in the books is a painful and pricey process, so I have decided to give Internet a try.

World wide web is still a free network and there are billions of users every day, so the odds that someone would actually read my material, evaluate it and provide a critical review, are pretty high.

In this short article I would like to show you three websites, which provide us with a chance of creating web-pages for free. – this is what I am using right now, it is a free blogging platform, where you can create your thematic website and fill it with various articles of your choice. Creating a blog is an easy task and Google is very loyal to these, so you have good chances of being read. – a somehow different website, it is a community of writers, where they share their interesting articles in the form of Squidoo pages (so called lenses). Depending on the number of visits to your lenses you will be assigned certain statuses or can even get rewarded for writing at – free article directory, where any user can register, receive a custom subdomain and start adding content. All the websites stated above are very reputed, so if you input some effort into writing articles and promoting them – you are sure to get a lot of visitors to your work.

I do hope that this article will be of great use to you and you will be able to start publishing your articles online for free.

Stylistic devices based on the interaction of dictionary and contextual logical meanings.

Monday, August 8, 2011

The relation between dictionary and contextual meanings may be maintained along different lines: on the principle of affinity, on that of proximity, or symbol - referent relations, or on opposition. Thus the stylistic device based on the first principle is metaphor, on the second - metonymy, and on the third - irony.

Metaphor is a relation between the dictionary and contextual logical meanings based on the affinity or similarity of certain properties or features of the two corresponding concepts: "He smelled the ever-beautiful smell of coffee imprisoned in the can".

Metaphor can be embodied in all the meaningful parts of speech, in nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and sometimes even in the auxiliary parts of speech, as in prepositions.

Metaphor as any stylistic device may be classified according to the degree of unexpectedness. Thus metaphors which are absolutely unexpected and quite unpredictable are called genuine metaphors: Through the open window the dust danced and was golden. Those which are commonly used in speech and are sometimes fixed in the dictionaries as expressive means of language are trite or dead metaphors: a flight of fancy, floods of tears.

Trite metaphors are sometimes injected with new vigour; their primary meaning is re-established alongside the new derivative meaning. Such metaphors are called sustained or prolonged. Stylistic function of a metaphor is to make the description concrete, to express the individual attitude.

Metonymy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on affinity, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent.
Many attempts have been made to classify the types of relation which metonymy is based on. Among them the following are most common:

1) a concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion; in this case a thing becomes a symbol of the notion: The sword (Instead of war) is the worst argument in a situation like this;
2) the container instead of the thing contained: May I have another plate; He drank one more cup;
3) the material instead of the thing made if it: This silk fits you perfectly;
4) the instrument the doer uses in performing the action instead of the action or the doer himself: His pen is rather sharp;
5) the relation of proximity: The round game table was boisterous and happy (Ch. Dickens).

A type of metonymy namely, the one, which is based on the relations between the part and the whole - is often viewed independently as synecdoche.

"My brass will call vow brass," says one of the characters of A. Hailey's Airport to another, meaning "My boss will call your boss". The transference of names is caused by both bosses being officers, wearing uniform caps with brass cockades.

Irony is a stylistic device also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings - dictionary and contextual, but the two meanings are in opposition to each other. The literal meaning is the opposite of the intended meaning. One thing is said and the other opposite is implied: Nice weather, isn't it? (on a rainy day). Here are some more examples:

"Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war"; "Sonny Grosso was a warrior who looked for and frequently managed to find, the dark side of most situations ".

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